World War Two (1942-1945)
March 1944 - August 1944
Chinese Soldiers in Myitkyina During World War II
First photograph shows troops of the 32nd Infantry Division preparing to attack Myitkyina. The second photograph is the image of a 10-year-old Chinese soldier at Myitkyina airfield 1944. A joint American-Chinese operation (including "Merrill’s Marauders") captured Myitkyina in late 1944 from the Japanese after a long siege, opening the "Ledo" or "Stilwell" Road from India to China.
June 1944 - 18 July 1944
Battles of Imphal and Kohima
The epic battles of Imphal and Kohima started on 4 April 1944 and ended with the Allies' victory on 22 June 1944. They are considered by many to be the Asian equivalent of Stalingrad - the pivotal battles that turned the tide of World War Two. Allied forces defeated the Japanese Imperial Army at the epic battles of Imphal and Kohima along the India-Burma border. The battles of Imphal and Kohima are amongst the most important ever in global history....
American Soldier in Kachin in 1944
Somewhere during 1944, American Pvt Wayne Martin offers gum to a child somewhere in the Kachin Hills. Pvt Martin was one of "Merril's Marauders", the American special operations unit that fought behind Japanese lines. American and Chinese forces were then battling the Japanese for control of Myitkyina.
2 September 1945
Surrender of Japan
On 2 September 1945, the Empire of Japan formally surrendered to the Allied Powers on board the USS Missouri. Over 100 Allied warships and submarines were present that day in Tokyo Bay. The Allied was represented by General of the Army Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Allied Commander. The Japanese was represented by Foreign Minister Shigemitsu Mamoru (in top hat and tails) and Chief of Imperial Army Staff General Umezu Yoshijiro.In Burma three days before (30 August), the Commander of the Burma...
12 September 1945
Japanese Surrenders at Government House, Rangoon
On 12 September 1945, General Ichida Jiro (Acting Chief of Staff Burma Area Army) formally surrendered to Brigadier E.P.E. Armstrong (Chief of Staff to Lt-General Sir Montague Stopford, GOC-in-Chief 12th Army Burma) at Government House, Rangoon. On the same day, Lord Louis Mountbatten, Supreme Allied Commander South East Asia received the Japanese surrender in Singapore. Five days earlier on 7 September, Lord Mountbatten and General Aung San signed an agreement at Kandy in Ceylon to absorb up to 5,200 men...
1940s - March 1945
Battles of Meiktila and Mandalay
The battles of Meiktila and Mandalay were extremely significant battles in the war between the Allies and the Empire of Japan (after Imphal and Kohima battles). They changed as well the course of Burmese history. In Cairo in November 1943 the leaders of the new “United Nations”, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Chiang Kai-shek, agreed on an overland invasion of Burma, to restore links between India and China. In June 1944, Allied forces decisively defeated the Japanese at the...
Japanese Surrender Ceremony at Rangoon University
The Japanese surrender ceremony was held at the Convocation Hall of Rangoon University in August 1945. The British 14th Army, with nearly a million men under arms (the largest imperial army anywhere in WW2) had just defeated the Japanese Burma Area Army and were preparing for an invasion of Malaya when the war ended. In this photograph, you can see the Convocation Hall in the background.
28 January 1945
Ledo or Stillwell Road
On 28 January 1945, the Ledo or "Stillwell Road" was opened. The Road connected Ledo in Assam to Kunming in Yunnan. The Allied lifeline to China was built by thousands of African-Americans in what was one of the epic engineering feats of World War Two. The road was named for General "Vinegar Joe" Stillwell, Commander of the China-Burma-India Theatre. This is a photograph of him with Generalissimo and Madame Chiang Kai-shek, taken at Flagstaff House in Maymyo (now destroyed) in...
In May 1945, Allied troops recaptured Rangoon ("Operation Dracula"). The 17th Indian Division was pushing south from Pegu and on 2 May reconnaissance aircraft flying over the jail noticed a message on the roof painted by British prisoners that read "Japs Gone, Extract Digit" (RAF slang for "Hurry Up"). The 26th Indian Division (a mixed force of mainly English, Punjabi, and Gurkha troops) entered the city virtually unopposed the next day. Allied leaders had feared that the Japanese would make...
20 April 1945
Pyinmana During World War Two
On 20 April 1945, Allied forces led by the 5th Indian Division were seizing control of Pyinmana (now "Naypyitaw"). It was the headquarters of the Japanese 33rd Army and its commander, General Masaki Honda, only just managed to escape in the dark on foot. Hundreds of other Japanese were killed. The 5th Indian Division - with Scots, Pathan, Sikh, English, Gurkha, Punjabi and other troops - had fought the Italians in East Africa and the Germans in North Africa, as...
15 May 1945
Relationship Between Lt. General Slim and General Aung San
General Aung San crossed the Irrawaddy at Allanmyo on 15 May 1945 and then flew to Meiktila on 16 May to meet for the first time with Lt General William Slim, commander of the (British) 14th Army. The 14th Army with nearly one million men was the largest Commonwealth army anywhere during World War Two - a giant force of Indians, Africans, British, Gurkhas, Burmese and others. By 16 May the 14th Army had already retaken Rangoon and General Slim...
British Patrol in Rangoon
A week of May, 1945: troops of the British 14th Army (likely 17 Indian Division) patrol Rangoon days after the Japanese retreat. The war damaged Reserve Bank of India (later Central Bank) is in the background. If you look closely at the jeep - you will see three Indian soldiers as well as a British soldier reading a map. He probably does not know that he is on Merchant Street heading west past Sule Pagoda Road.
1 May 1945 - 7 May 1945
In the first week of May 1945, Allied troops led by the Indian 17th and Indian 26th Divisions retook Rangoon from the Japanese who retreated to Moulmein. It was the same week Adolf Hitler committed suicide and Germany surrendered. Many people do not realize how badly damaged Rangoon was from the war, from Allied as well as Japanese bombing, and three and a half years of occupation. The dockyards, railways, factories, oil refineries, and much basic infrastructure had been completely...
Labour Party's Election Victory Changed Burma's History
In July 1945, the Labour Party won a landslide victory over the Conservatives and Clement Attlee replaced Sir Winston Churchill as Prime Minister. Labour's election victory without a doubt changed the course of Burma's history. Clement Attlee was committed to decolonization and within a year reversed earlier policies and began moves towards Burmese self-determination. By 1949 the Attlee government had granted independence to India, Pakistan, Burma and Ceylon. A Conservative government under Winston Churchill would almost certainly not have granted...
15 June 1945
Allied Forces Holding a Victory Parade Along Shwedagon Pagoda Road
On 15 June 1945 Allied forces under Supreme Allied Commander South East Asia Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten held a victory parade over the Japanese Empire. Lord Louis Mountbatten took the salute together with other Allied commanders including General Aung San, who had just been given the rank of "Deputy Inspector General". The march past included units of the Indian Army, the Royal Navy, the Royal Marines, the US Army, the Chinese Army, and the "Patriotic Burma Forces" under General Aung...
8 March 1945
Battle on Mandalay Hill
In March 1945, fighting rages on Mandalay Hill between the 19th Indian Division and defending Japanese imperial forces. The 44th Gurkhas had successfully stormed the Hill the night of 8 March, reaching the summit the next morning. But the Japanese had hidden themselves in dozens of concrete tunnels and bunkers. For two days, amongst Buddhist temples and monasteries, the Gurkhas together with Sikhs of the Frontier Force Regiment battled the Japanese, including in hand-to-hand combat. The Battles for Meiktila and...
27 March 1945
Armed Forces Day
Armed Forces Day marks the anniversary of the fateful decision by the Burma National Army in March 1945 to revolt against the Japanese and side with the Allies. After a 27 March parade in Rangoon, the BNA marched out of the city and began attacking Japanese positions in the delta and in the Pyinmana-Toungoo area (exactly where Napyitaw is now). The war in Burma was then nearly over. Nearly a million British, African, Indian, Gurkha, Chinese, and American troops had...
2 July 1945 - 7 August 1945
The Battle of the Sittang Bend
The Battle of the Sittang Bend took place from 2 July to 7 August 1945. Soon after the Allied recapture of Rangoon in May 1945, the Japanese 15th, 28th and 33rd armies under General Kimura Heitaro attempted to break out from the Pegu Yomas and move towards Siam. Nearly 10,000 were killed and another 5,000 wounded. This breakout attempt was the last major land battle involving the Western powers during WW2.